Desalination is the removal of dissolved salts from water. Desalination can take place through the process of reverse osmosis (RO) or distillation. In most applications, reverse osmosis is the most practical way of desalinating water. Osmosis is a process found in all biological systems, resulting in water from a dilute solution passing spontaneously through a semi-permeable membrane into a more concentrated solution on the other side.
Reverse osmosis achieves the separation of dissolved salts and impurities from a water solution by means of pressure exerted on a semi-permeable membrane. The salts are unable to pass through the membrane and are collected in a concentrated form. Treated water is known as permeate and the process can be repeated one or more times to further concentrate the brine and reduce the percentage of rejected concentrate water.
Reverse osmosis desalination is the most technologically advanced method of purifying water from a range of sources including sea, river, mains, bore, artesian or surface. Reverse osmosis systems ensure the highest levels of productivity gain, equipment longevity and improved water recovery.